Biggest Temple in Indonesia, Borobudur


Biggest temple in Indonesia, Borobudur
Borobudur Temple is the largest temple in Indonesia. Borobudur Temple which is located in Magelang, Central Java, in addition to being a tourist crowded also became a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia especially in any celebrations of Vesak. This is in accordance with the meaning of the name "monastery in the hills". Borobudur is currently designated as one of UNESCO World Heritage sites.
 
 
The History Of The Temple

Borobudur was built around the year 800 Ad or 9th century. The temple was built by the adherents of Mahayana Buddhism during the reign of Sailendra. This temple was built during the heyday of Syailendra dynasty. The founder of the temple which King Samaratungga originating from the House or the Syailendra dynasty. The possibility of this temple was built around the year 824 M and was completed around by 900 's Ad during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architect who helped build the temple according to a story passed down through generations named Gunadharma.
Borobudur Temple
 

Borobudur's own words based on the earliest written evidence written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of United Kingdom in Java, which gave the name of this temple. There is no written evidence that the older name of Borobudur at this temple. Only the oldest document which shows the existence of this temple is the book of Nagarakertagama, written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365. In the book were written that this temple was used as a place of Buddhist meditation.
 

The meaning of the name Borobudur "monastery in the hills", which is derived from the word "bara" (temple or monastery) and "beduhur" (the hills or high place) in Sanskrit. Therefore, in accordance with the meaning of the name Borobudur, then this place is historically used as a place of Buddhist worship.
 

This temple for centuries is no longer used. Then due to the volcanic eruption, most of the buildings enclosed the Borobudur volcanic soil. In addition, the building also covered a wide range of trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple is starting to be forgotten at the time Islam came to Indonesia around the 15th century.
 

In 1814 when the United Kingdom occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles hears of any archeological discovery of immense proportions in the village of Bumisegoro region. Due to the large interest in the history of Java, then Raffles immediately ordered an engineer H.C. Cornelius, Netherlands, to investigate the location of the discovery was at the time in the form of a hill full of shrubs.
 

Cornelius was aided by about 200 men cut down trees and get rid of the Bush that covered the hulking building. Due to consider a building that already fragile and could collapse, then Cornelius reported to Raffles the discovery includes some pictures. Due to the discovery that, Raffles awarded as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur Temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire Temple has been successfully excavated. The temple continues to be restored during the colonization of the Netherlands.
 

After Indonesia became independent, in 1956, the Government of Indonesia requested assistance of UNESCO to examine the damage. Then in 1963, the official government decision out of Indonesia to do the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help of UNESCO. However, this restoration was recently really started on August 10, 1973. The process of reconstruction was completed in 1984. Since 1991, Borobudur was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO or world heritage.
 
 
Borobudur Temple
The Architecture Of Borobudur

Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, about 40 km from Yogyakarta. The temple has 10 levels consisting of 6 levels is of square shape, 3 levels and a rounded circular and a main stupa as its peak. In each level there are a number of stupas. In total there are 72 stupas, in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is the statue of the Buddha. Ten level depict Buddhist philosophy that a Bodhisattva should ten levels traversed to reach the perfection of a Buddha in Nirvana. The perfection of it is symbolized by the main stupa at the top level. Borobudur structure when viewed from the top to form the structure of the mandala that illustrates Buddhist Cosmology and human way of thinking.
 

On all four sides of the temple there is a gate and stairs to the level above it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life comes from the rocks. Stone later became the sand, then plants, then insects, then into wild animals and pets, and finally become a man. This process is referred to as reincarnation. The final process is to become the soul and eventually go into Nirvana. Each stage of enlightenment on life process is based on the philosophy of the Buddha is depicted in reliefs and statues on the Borobudur Temple.
 

The building is just a pile of blocks of stone giants that have a total height of 42 meters. Every stone attached without the use of cement or adhesive. These rocks are only attached on pattern and stacked. The base of Borobudur are approximately 118 m on each side. Stones are used roughly as much as 55,000 cubic meters. All the stones are taken from the river around Borobudur Temple. These stones were cut and then transported and attached with a pattern such as lego game. All without the use of adhesives or cement.
 

While the relief began after the completion of the rocks were stacked and attached. There are reliefs on temple walls. Borobudur has 2646 relief differently. This Relief is read clockwise and clockwise rotation. This Relief depicts a story that I read it begins and ends at the gate to the East. This shows that the main gate of the temple facing East like other Buddhist temples.


The celebration of Vesak in Borobudur

Every year on the full moon in May (or June on leap years), Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak in Borobudur Temple. Vesak is celebrated as the day of birth, death and the moment when the Supreme wisdom gained Gautama with a Buddha Shakyamuni. All three of these events are known as Vesak Trisuci. Vesak ceremony centred on three Buddhist temples by walking from Mendut to Pawon and ending at Borobudur.
 

On the evening of Vesak, especially when the second-second peak of the full moon, the Buddhists gathered around Borobudur. At that time, Borobudur is held as a gathering place for supernatural power. According to belief, at the time of Vesak, the Buddha will emerge is visible at the top of the mountain to the South.


Borobudur

Currently, Borobudur has become a tourist attraction that attracts many tourists both local and foreign tourists. In addition, the temple has become a holy place for Buddhists in Indonesia and became the Centre of the most important annual celebration of Buddhist Vesak.
 

Borobudur became one of the evidences of the greatness and human intelligence ever made in Indonesia. Borobudur became the main cultural and tourist attractions in Indonesia besides Bali and Jakarta. After visiting Borobudur, you can also visit the surrounding villages such as Karanganyar who had several tourist places of interest.

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